The LoRaWAN® specification is a Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) network protocol designed to wirelessly connect battery operated ‘things’ to the internet in regional, national or global networks. The protocol includes features that support low-cost, mobile, and secure bi-directional communication for Internet of Things (IoT), machine-to-machine (M2M), smart city & industrial applications. LoRaWAN® protocol is optimised for low power consumption and is designed to scale from a single gateway installation up to large global networks with billions of devices. Innovative features of the LoRaWAN® specification include support for redundant operation, geolocation, low-cost, and low-power: Devices can even run on energy harvesting technologies enabling the mobility and bringing true ease of use to the Internet of Things.
The LoRaWAN® specification documents are developed and maintained by the LoRa Alliance®: an open association of collaborating members. To fully define the LoRaWAN® protocol, and to ensure interoperability among devices and networks, the LoRa Alliance® develops and maintains the following documents:
While these specifications define the technical implementation, they do not define any commercial model or type of deployment (public, shared, private, enterprise) and so offer the industry the freedom to innovate and differentiate in how a LoRaWAN® system is implemented.
The specification defines the and so provides seamless interoperability between manufacturers, as demonstrated via the device certification program.
The LoRaWAN® Specification document defines the device-to-infrastructure LoRa® physical layer parameters & the LoRaWAN® network protocol, including MAC layer commands, frame content, Classes, Data Rates, Security and flexible network frequency management
The LoRaWAN® Regional Parameters document contains the approved frequency channel plans for various global regions, and follows the established regulatory constraints in those regions. These details are managed separately from the core LoRaWAN® Specification to enable the Alliance to quickly address regional regulatory support requirements. LoRa(R) physical layer parameters covered by the Regional Parameters include: preamble format, channel frequencies, data rates, Tx output power & dwell time and power control.
The LoRaWAN® Backend Interfaces document supports decomposing the network into interoperable nodes, as required for inter-vendor roaming. The Back-End Interfaces specification provides the protocols that interconnect servers with distinct roles such as: controlling the MAC layer, end-point authentication, or applications behind the scenes in the core network. Separating these servers allows an open choice of vendors for each element of the value chain, empowering the ecosystem.
For any technology to scale within an open ecosystem with multiple vendors it is critical to give confidence of interoperability. This provides adopters the assurance of adherence to the LoRaWAN® protocol, the interface between end-devices and network infrastructure:
Member benefits of the LoRa Alliance® Certification Program:
LoRa Alliance® Certification Program ensures that end-devices meet national regulations in each region, as well as the LoRaWAN® features required to ensure interoperability and compliance.
Only LoRa Alliance® Authorised Test Houses (ATH) may perform testing for the LoRa Alliance® Certification Program. Applicable national conformity test reports and registrations are supplied together with the LoRaWAN® conformity report before receiving the LoRaWAN® Certified approval.